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Part 2: Inputs for Pest, Disease and Weed Management

A= allowed to be used

R= restricted (must be approved by the PGS before use)

Input

A/R

Description and conditions

Insect traps

A

There are various traps eg: sticky traps (with pheromone or glue/grease, light traps.

Sulphur

A

Used to control fungus but must be applied carefully, leaf burning can occur if applied in too hot weather.

Copper

R

Fungus and bacteria control. There are various copper products. Care should be taken to avoid over spraying.

Bordeaux mixture can be used (copper sulphate; burnt lime and water) for normal crops ratio of 40:40:4 and applied immediately. Can burn leaves.

Micro-organisms

A

Except GMO’s

Sodium bicarbonate

R

As a fungus control particularly mildews. Rate 5-10 grams to 1 litre water

Beneficial insects

A

Can be introduced for biological control.

Mineral oils

R

As insect controls usually applied with water at a rate of 1%

Bacillus thuringensis (BT)

R

Except BT made from GMO’s

Repellents

A

Citronella grass, lemon grass etc

Pyrethrum

R

Natural pyrethrum can be used for insect control. But will affect predators particularly in citrus.

Pheromones

A

Used to attract pest insects, usually contained in traps.

Tobacco

R

Tobacco tea is allowed for insect control and soaking seeds before planting. Pure nicotine is prohibited as it is highly toxic to warm blooded animals (LD50=55).

Derris spp

R

Less toxic than tobacco but can irritate the skin. Controls beetles, insects and flies. LD50=132. When used o leafy vegetables there must be a least a 7 day withholding period before harvest. Should not be used near water as it is toxic to fish.

Sticking agents

A

Use soft soap

Botanical extracts

R

Used with caution as they may harm beneficial insects. Extracts from various plants usually soaked in water and used as a tea

Neem

R

Insect control (usually as a commercial liquid) but can be made from local sources.

Viruses

A

Must not be from GMO’s. Can be used to control insect pests, etc

Liquid compost

 

Diluted liquid (1 litre compost juice to 10- 20 litres of water). Used to control fungus diseases such as Phytophthera.

Weed control

R

All herbicides are prohibited. Mulching with plant material or plastic mulch is permitted.

Vinegar

A

To control diseases, weeds and insect pests. Dilute before spraying.